Mycoplasma testing

MycoProbe Mycoplasma Detection Kit (CUL001B): R&D Systems

Two methods for detection of mycoplasma, immunology and PCR. Accurate detection of various mycoplasmas Everything You Need To Know About mycoplasma testing,Enter Now To help you detect or rule out mycoplasma contamination of your cell cultures quickly, ATCC offers two different mycoplasma testing services to choose from: PCR-based mycoplasma testing, which is rapid and sensitive, and culture-based mycoplasma testing, which is also sensitive and includes both direct and indirect culture methods that are based on the Food and Drug Administration's Points to. Mycoplasma testing is a regulatory requirement and mycoplasma test methods are described in several compendia, regulations, and guidance documents worldwide. The traditional culture method and the indicator cell culture method are not fully harmonized and may vary between different jurisdictions Clinical laboratories can provide diagnostic testing for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections using culture, serology, or nucleic acid amplification methods (see chart below). M. pneumoniae differs from other bacteria in ways that impact the methods used for diagnosis of infection: It can pass through filters typically used to remove bacteria

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  1. ation events can lead to altered physio-chemical properties of cells, potentially resulting in reduced or altered cellular products and perhaps unsafe biopharmaceuticals
  2. Mycoplasma testing includes a group of tests that either measure antibodies in the blood produced in response to a mycoplasma infection or detect the microbe directly through culturing or by detecting its genetic material (DNA) in a body sample
  3. e if Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the cause of a respiratory tract infection. It may also be used to help diagnose a systemic infection that is thought to be due to mycoplasma. Blood tests for antibody to M. pneumonia
  4. ants of mammalian cell cultures. Regulatory guidance requires that all products derived from mammalian cell culture undergo mycoplasma testing. Mycoplasma detection is difficult, sometimes impossible, when using a traditional 28-day culture-based test
  5. Culture-based mycoplasma testing is currently the method most commonly approved by the FDA for lot release testing for biologics, cell therapies and viral vaccines. PCR-based mycoplasma testing has not been universally approved for release of clinical material or marketed product. PCR-based mycoplasma testing can be used in your process
  6. The 610.30 Test for Mycoplasma requires manufacturers to test for mycoplasma during manufacture of live and inactivated vaccines produced from in vitro living cell cultures. Th
  7. BioReliance's Approach to Mycoplasma Testing: Introduction of USP <63> 3 www.bioreliance.com in all the three regulations (Table 3). Vero cells are most commonly used but another cell substrate may be used if equivalence for detection of mycoplasma is demonstrated. In the PTC, the test article is added to the cells and incubate

Our PCR-based mycoplasma detection service can quickly and reliably identify over 60 species of Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, Spiroplasma, and Ureaplasma, giving you the confidence you need in the purity of your cultures to move forward with your research.Our PCR-based mycoplasma testing laboratory is ISO/IEC 17025 certified, and ATCC is a global leader in biomaterial standards and materials, with. Testing for Mycoplasma is a necessary quality control re- — M. gallisepticum (when avian material has been used quirement to assure reliably pure biotechnological products during production or when the vaccine or cell cultur

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Mycoplasma Testing - Learn More Result

Mycoplasma testing is a necessary quality control requirement to certify that dependable research is performed and to ensure that the biotechnology products produced are reliable The gold standard microbiological assay, currently recommended by the USP, EP, JP and the US FDA, for the mycoplasma testing of biologics, involves the culture of viable mycoplasmas in broth, agar plates and indicator cells Product Overview The MycoAlert TM Mycoplasma Detection Kit (100 Tests) is a selective biochemical test that exploits the activity of mycoplasmal enzymes which are found in all six of the main mycoplasma cell culture contaminants and the vast majority of 180 mycoplasma species, but are not present in eukaryotic cells The United States Pharmacopeia's (USP) new chapter <63> Mycoplasma Tests(1) was intended to fill a void in the USP for mycoplasma testing, which had been addressed previously within the FDA's 1993 Points to Consider in the Characterization of Cell Lines Used to Produce Biologicals (PTC) and the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) chapter 2.6.7 Mycoplasmas.(2-3) A separate regulatory document (21 CFR.

Mycoplasma Testing ATC

Strict adherence to good laboratory practices such as good aseptic techniques is key, and routine testing of cultures for mycoplasma is highly recommended for successful control of mycoplasma contamination Mycoplasmas are small, round or filamentous prokaryotic orga­nisms. They are members of the order Mollicutes and there are over 100 species, which is one reason why single tests can fail to detect contamination. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is pathogenic, but most Mycoplasma species are not. The species most frequently found in tissue culture are Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma orale, Mycoplasma arginini and Acholeplasma laidlawii1,2,4

Mycoplasma Testing Charles Rive

Mycoplasma testing using MycoAlert® System The Tissue Culture Facility performs mycoplasma testing for your lab's cultured cells. The TCF offers one day turnaround on results, and depending on work load, within an hour. The new MycoAlert® System detects mycoplasma in cell cultures using the sensitive luminescent assay of ATP. The assay is a selective biochemical [ Mycoplasma Testing Services - We offer Mycoplasma testing in cell lines, biologicals and samples of human origin (CLIA waived) by PCR, cell-based fluorescence, according to 21CFR 610.30, 9CFR113.28 or the 1993 Points

Eurofins BioPharma Product Testing offers a 5-day rapid mycoplasma test comparable in sensitivity to the 28-day compendial method. Instrumentation. To execute this rapid technology, Eurofins BioPharma Product Testing uses ABI's MycoSEQ Real Time Detection System for Mycoplasma. This SYBR Green based system, which utilizes magnetic beads to. Mycoplasma testing is a necessary quality control requirement to certify that dependable research is performed and to ensure that the biotechnology products produced are reliable. Choose Gibraltar Labs for Mycoplasma Testing. Gibraltar Laboratories, Inc. performs mycoplasma testing utilizing any of the following test methodologies as requested. Mycoplasma blood testing can also directly detect the microorganism that creates the antibodies, but typically requires a culture from the blood test and this may take up to 4 weeks to either confirm or deny its presence. DNA testing on a sample has decreased this time, but because mycoplasma also colonizes within the body without causing an.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Diagnostic Methods for Labs CD

  1. Bionique® Testing Laboratories, Inc. has advanced into an international leading provider of mycoplasma testing services for the life science industry. Bionique's unwavering commitment to quality continues as we celebrate the 30-year milestone anniversary and the client partnerships that have contributed to the company's success
  2. ation in cell cultures. Requires only basic cell culture knowledge Hands-on time < 1 hour. Results after overnight incubation Detects 5.10 2-5.10 5 cfu/ml mycoplasma conta
  3. Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma can be isolated from urethral and genital swabs and from urine of sexually active individuals. Sixty percent or more of all women asymptomatically carry U urealyticum in their genital tract. Usual prevalence of these organisms in patients with urethral symptoms also is high; thus, conclusions regarding the etiologic role of an isolate in a given patient are difficult.
  4. Tortoise Mycoplasma Testing Shipping. For detailed information on collection, sample submission & shipping, please open the following link or call Alexandra Burne at (352) 294-4071 or Dr. Mary Brown at (352) 294-4029.. Shipping Collection and Submission information for Mycoplasma

The Challenges of Mycoplasma Testing for USP <63> Compliance. As the use of cell lines to produce biopharmaceuticals continues to increase, Mycoplasma testing is a growing quality control challenge. Because of its unique properties, Mycoplasma poses many challenges for detection and management. Mycoplasma contamination can spread quickly, yet. Mycoplasma Test Methods: Mycoplasma Test on agar and broth (compliance with 21 CFR 610.30 and EP 2.6.7.) PCR based test (endpoint and real-time PCR) Test on indicator cells and DNA fluorochrome staining (compliant with FDA points to consider, 1993 and EP 2.6.7.) Identification of Mycoplasma strains (DNA sequencing) Sample Material. Mycoplasma Detection. Testing for mycoplasma is required for biologicals produced for clinical investigation and as licensed biologicals including: Recombinant Proteins. Monoclonal Antibodies. Viral Vaccines (live and inactivated) Novel Therapies. Mycoplasma contamination in a cell line may be difficult to detect and is not typically visible. Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is a known pathogen associated with the development of synovitis and chronic respiratory disease in chickens and turkeys. Clinical symptoms include joint swelling, coryza and respiratory rales. Economic losses due to M. synoviae infection include reduced egg production, lowered hatchability of chicks and downgraded meat. Widespread mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures in the biopharmaceutical industry and the potential economic consequences associated with it have lead to the development of an extensive range of commercial test kits aimed at research laboratories and bioreactor operators

Mycoplasma Testing - Eurofins Scientifi

Mycoplasma Testing with Texcell include. Detection of culturable and non-culturable mycoplasma. Detection of mycoplasma by qPCR (>90 species) Texcell has developed several protocols to detect a broad range of mycoplasma species encountered in cell lines of human and animal origins. Our standard tests are validated and meet global regulatory. Mycoplasma qPCR detection assays offer gold standard performance for your pharmaceutical QC processes. Viable but non-culturable (VBNC) Mycoplasma can go undetected when using the traditional method of mycoplasma culturing, risking false-negative results. Our Microsart ® qPCR kits offer a method for early detection of mycoplasma contamination

This test looks for microorganisms in a sample of secretions from your genital area. Mycoplasma may be a sign of infection or a sexually transmitted infection The chapter indicates that mycoplasma testing is a necessary quality control requirement for pure biotechnological products and allied materials and that the broth and agar media and indicator cell culture procedures may be used to detect mycoplasma contamination of test articles, tissues and/or cell cultures used to produce test articles. Mycoplasma detection in cell culture. Mycoplasmas are the smallest and simplest self-replicating organisms. Due to their minimal genome, they cannot perform metabolic functions such as production of a cell wall, or synthesis of nucleotides or amino acids. Therefore, they exist strictly as parasites, using diverse organisms as hosts, including.

Mycoplasma Lab Tests Onlin

  1. Mycoplasma bovis. The ISU VDL is now offering a new diagnostic test (real-time PCR) to detect the genetic material of Mycoplasma bovis.. Preferred samples are milk, bulk tank milk, lung, tracheal wash, bronchoalveolar lavage, joint and ear fluid, tonsil swabs and nasal swabs (as a last resort in the diagnosis of M. bovis disease). Please contact the diagnostic laboratory for submission.
  2. ants and the vast majority of 180 mycoplasma species, but are not present in eukaryotic cells. Viable mycoplasma in a test sample (cell supernatant) are lysed and the enzymes.
  3. Partial list of species detected by the MycoSEQ™ Mycoplasma Detection Assay. The kit detects over 90 Mycoplasma species, related Acholeplasma laidlawii and Spiroplasma citri, and other European Pharmacopeia species. Common isolated species recommended for testing and validation are in bold
  4. is & Ureaplasma Tests. These individual tests are used to detect the presence of mycoplasma and/or ureaplasma. Please note that because of the specialized nature of the mycoplasma tests, results can take up to 15 business days
  5. Modifications to Mycoplasma testing described in § 610.30 must meet the requirements of 21 CFR 610.9. Thus, the Agency believes that the regulation may no longer reflect the current testing procedures as a general matter and that it is more appropriate, flexible, and efficient to identify appropriate testing requirements for particular.

Mycoplasma Labcor

Mycoplasma Contamination Testing Methods. Several methods for the detection of mycoplasma have been published: Cultures on agar, liquid media, or semi-solid media. DAPI Staining - staining DNA with fluorescent dyes (4', 6-diamine-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride). DNA hybridization Mycoplasma Testing at CellBank Australia. Mycoplasma testing is performed on samples of culture medium. We recommend that cells are grown in antibiotic-free medium for at least two weeks and/or passaged at least twice. Media should not be changed for 3-4 days prior to sampling. Antibiotics can suppress bacterial contamination, which means that. Rapid Mycoplasma Testing Method Now Accepted by Regulators for QA/QC and Lot Release. BEDFORD, Mass., April 3, 2018 / PRNewswire / -- Manufacturers of cell-culture-based therapeutics can now rely on a faster method for detecting mycoplasma contamination. The Applied Biosystems MycoSEQ Mycoplasma Detection Kit is a fully integrated solution for.

Mycoplasma Detection Thermo Fisher Scientific - U

Home Mycoplasma Testing & Medication Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is a sexually transmitted bacterium found in the urinary and genital tracts. Most people with mycoplasma don't realise they have it, as it often displays no symptoms. Order your at-home mycoplasma test with with follow-up medication provided at no extra cost Mycoplasma Testing. Martina described that at Mycoplasma Biosafety, they have experience with various commercially available PCR kits for rapid mycoplasma testing. One commercial kit they leverage for product-specific validation is the Roche CustomBiotech MycoTOOL Mycoplasma Real-Time PCR Test System Question: Is there a commercially available diagnostic test for M. genitalium in the United States?. No FDA-approved diagnostic test for M. genitalium is currently available in the United States. However, Hologic, Inc. (formerly Gen-Probe) has recently made analyte specific reagents (ASR) targeting M. genitalium commercially available for use with their Aptima TMA assay

Mycoplasma testing is applied in cell line testing, virus testing, and end- of- production cell testing and is used by pharmaceutical & biotechnology companies, cell banks & laboratories, contract. The MycoFluor™ Mycoplasma Detection Kit provides an ultrasensitive, rapid, and simple fluorescence microscopic assay for the visual identification of mycoplasma infection in laboratory cell cultures. In order to detect mycoplasma, the fluorescent MycoFluor™ reagent is added directly to the culture medium, with or without cells, and the stained sample is then examined under a fluorescence.

  1. ants will be larger. Compare the results on your test slide with your positive and negative control slides. References 1. Chen TR. In Situ Detection of Mycoplasma Conta
  2. Mycoplasma testing is most often used to detect Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae), the causative agent of respiratory infections often referred to as atypical pneumonia. M. pneumoniae is a common cause of upper respiratory infections. It is responsible for 15-20% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia, appearing as single cases and as.
  3. ated cells in the environment, in which stringent efforts are being made to.

Elimination of 21 CFR 610

How can I spot mycoplasma contamination?

PCR-based Mycoplasma Testing ATC

About Mycoplasma bovis | Mycoplasma bovis

Mycoplasma Testing - PCR & Traditional Nelson Lab

Thus, testing for the presence of mycoplasma and spiroplasma contamination in development and manufacturing is a requirement by worldwide regulatory agencies. Guidance for this testing is provided in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Chapter <63> Mycoplasma Tests, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Chapter 2.6.7 Mycoplasmas Mycoplasma contamination is a widespread and reoccurring problem in a wide variety of cell culture systems. These micro-organisms, which belong to the class Mollicutes, are comparatively small (0.2 - 0.3 µm), lack a cell wall and are thus not susceptible to penicillins or other antibiotics that act on this structure, and they show tolerance to many other antibiotics

Mycoplasma testing of cell substrates and biologics

Mycoplasma Testing. Introduction; Bibliography; Introduction Because of the effects of mycoplasma contamination on growth and metabolism of cells in culture ( 1, 2, 3, 6, 11, 14) and the difficulty of detecting mycoplasma macroscopically, microbiologists and cell culturists have been eager to develop or adapt the most sensitive methods to assay for mycoplasma in cell cultures 3.4.3 Number the media test vessels and agar plates to coincide with the samples and controls to be tested. 4. Performance of the Test 4.1 Dress for the Mycoplasma test by wearing a lab coat and gloves. 4.2 Wipe down the interior surfaces of the BSC used for testing with 70% ethano Mycoplasma. Testing. 9. Three antibiotic-free passages of cell lines tested for . Mycoplasma. are recommended in order to achieve the highest test sensitivity. 9. Cell-based assay in Vero cells followed by Hoechst staining requires 3-6 days to obtain results. 9. Microbiology media growth assay requires three subculture step

MycoAlert™ Mycoplasma Detection Kit Lonz

The presence of the Mycoplasma shall be determined by comparison of the growth obtained from the test samples with that of the control cultures, with respect to typical colonial and microscopic morphology. The virus pool is satisfactory for vaccine manufacture if none of the tests on the samples show evidence of the presence of Mycoplasma Mycoplasma Testing Services. Bionique ® Testing Laboratories, Inc. is committed to providing our clients with the very best in products and services. Additionally, we offer contractual services to meet client specific needs in our areas of expertise - mycoplasma testing and cell culture testing. We provide a wide range of services compliant. A mycoplasma PCR assay was evaluated for the detection of contaminating mycoplasma in biological samples, when used in conjunction with a broth enrichment culture. The relative sensitivity of the broth enrichment/PCR detection was determined by direct comparison with the broth enrichment/agar detection assay specified for veterinar

the testing procedure and subsequent results interpretation require solid training and experience, mycoplasma testing cannot always be carried out in-house. Outsourcing myco - plasma testing to a trustworthy and experienced contract research organization (CRO) is an alternative that brings several advantages Mycoplasma PCR Test 1. Make master mix H2O 30.5uL 10x Ex Taq buffer 5uL dNTP mixture 4uL 10x primer mix (10 uM stock) 5uL Ex Taq enzyme 0.5uL Total Volume (per sample) 45uL 2. Spin media at high speed for 10 min to pellet any cells. 3. In a PCR plate, add 45 ul of master mix to each well. 4. Add 5 ul of media to each well. 5 Diagnostic Mycoplasma Laboratory - School of Medicine. The UAB Diagnostic Mycoplasma Laboratory was established in 1984 to provide laboratory services to patients at the UAB Medical Center and to support clinical research studies that required detection of mycoplasmas in human diseases. Recognizing the need for specialized diagnostic services.

While commercial test kits are quite easy and fast, they are often too expensive for most labs for routine testing. Commercial kits are unnecessary however, as primer sequences for mycoplasma detection have been published along with routine protocols. Below is a protocol I have derived from Uphoff and Drexler 1,2. I recommend doing this test. Culture Media for the Compendial Test Method. Merck provides a complete portfolio of ready-to use liquid and solid culture media required for detecting mycoplasmas according to European Pharmacopeia 6.1 (2.6.7.) and USP 35 (63). The Merck mycoplasma testing range comprises. HAYFLICK medium for general detection of mycoplasmas (except M. synoviae § 113.28 Detection of mycoplasma contamination. The heart infusion test, using heart infusion broth and heart infusion agar, provided in this section shall be conducted when a test for mycoplasma contamination is prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production for the product Although traditional antibody tests are generally not as accurate as PCR, detection may be possible if a patient has developed mycoplasma antibodies. • LABORATORIES TESTING FOR MYCOPLASMA, LYME & CO-INFECTION PCR Test. In response, PCR testing for mycoplasma has been developed. However, this method must be able to prove sensitivity comparable to the traditional methods outlined by the USP and EP and accepted by the regulatory authorities. Biological Industries has developed a PCR test to quickly and accurately test cultures for mycoplasma

Mycoplasma Testing. Tissue cell cultures can become contaminated by mycoplasma species without you knowing, which can be a serious problem. Mycoplasma can cause alterations in cell growth and metabolism, or induce morphological changes or chromosomal abnormalities Mycoplasma genitalium is a common STD in men and women. It can be detected with a NAAT test using a urine sample or tissue swab to look for bacterial DNA 2011178. Mycoplasma hominis by PCR. 68546-1. 2011180. Mycoplasma genitalium by PCR. 69935-5. * Component test codes cannot be used to order tests. The information provided here is not sufficient for interface builds; for a complete test mix, please click the sidebar link to access the Interface Map

USP <63> Mycoplasma Tests: A New Regulation for Mycoplasma

The global mycoplasma testing market size was valued at USD 627.16 million in 2019 and is expected to witness attractive growth over the forecast period. Increasing investments in R&D activities have contributed to huge revenue for the market. The rising introduction of novel technologies by key players is expected to further boost growth require testing for Mycoplasma contamination using a broth and agar technique. The requirements do however differ in the specifics of these broth and agar tests as well as other alternative test methods that are required or approved for use in detecting Mycoplasma contamination * The Alternative Mycoplasma Test Methods Task Force is a subgroup of the larger PDA Mycoplasma Task Force, which is chaired by Barbara Potts. The content and views expressed in this technical report are the result of a consensus achieved by the authoring task forc SureSwab®, Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma Panel, Real-Time PCR - Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp. have been associated with genital tract infection. M. genitalium has been implicated in cervicitis, endometritis, and PID. M. hominis has also been associated with cervicitis and is present in increased numbers in vaginosis. Ureaplasma spp. have been linked to upper genitourinary tract infection and to.

Serological Testing | Virus | Bacteria | Food | Food ChainJCRB0736:Py-3Y1-S2

Mycoplasma Detection. A highly sensitive colorimetric microplate-based assay designed to detect the eight mycoplasma species known to cause 95% of eukaryotic cell culture contamination. R&D Systems MycoProbe™ Mycoplasma Detection Kit (Catalog # CUL001B) permits high-throughput, routine screening of cell cultures for mycoplasma contamination Mycoplasmacheck (MPC) Barcodes. The format of the MPC Barcodes have changed. They are now 8-digits. Example: MP00000301. All old MPC Barcodes are still valid and can be used unrestricted. The Barcodes can now be found in the Barcode Management Genotyping list. Please note: the new Barcodes are already activated InsightSLICE have included the latest addition of a report titled Mycoplasma Testing Market to its expansive repository. The report studies primary and secondary research in order to analyze the data effectively. The market study further also draws attention to crucial industry factors such as global clients, potential customers, and sellers, which instigates positive company growth The test for Mycoplasma in § 610.30 is intended to ensure that live virus vaccines produced from in vitro living cell cultures, and inactivated virus vaccines produced from such living cell cultures do not contain Mycoplasma Mycoplasma contamination can often go unnoticed during routine cell culture. Use our tools to take the worry out of your experiments with quick and specific qPCR detection of Mycoplasma. Takara Bio USA, Inc. United States/Canada: +1.800.662.2566 • Asia Pacific: +1.650.919.7300 • Europe: +33. (0)1.3904.6880 • Japan: +81. (0)77.565.6999

Mycoplasma testing is primarily used to help determine if Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the cause of a respiratory tract infection. It may also be used to help diagnose a systemic infection that is thought to be due to mycoplasma. Blood tests for antibody to Mycoplasma pneumoniae Mycoplasma Testing Market expected to grow at a CAGR of 11.6% till 2023 by Product, by Techniques and Application. Emerging Global Opportunities in Mycoplasma Testing Market Growth By Major Companies, Future Trends, Technology, Industry Size, Share and Regional Analysis, Forecast to 2023 The program was later extended and refined to include testing and monitoring for Salmonella typhoid, Salmonella enteritidis, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma meleagridis, and Avian Influenza. In addition, the NPIP currently includes commercial poultry, turkeys, waterfowl, exhibition poultry, backyard poultry, and game.

Mycoplasma Disease in Cattle. In recent years, more than 20 species of Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma and Acholeplasma have been isolated from cattle with different diseases. All of the 20 aforementioned species have been referred to as the Mycoplasmas. It is generally believed that Mycoplasmas play a secondary role in infections, most often exacerbating pre-existing disease; but it has been shown. Compendial testing and release: For controlling raw materials, in-process testing, and lot release testing of finished products: Microsart® AMP Mycoplasma Kit Compendial testing and release : For testing cell-based therapeutics (ATMPs) such as autologous chondrocyte transplants or CAR-T cells

ThermoFisher&#39;s Mike Brewer Discusses MycoplasmaStem Cell Facility- U of U School of MedicineMycoplasma Mastitis: Control and Eradication in Dairy Herds

Global Coronavirus pandemic has impacted all industries across the globe, Mycoplasma Testing Kits & Reagents market being no exception. As Global economy heads towards major recession post 2009 crisis, Cognitive Market Research has published a recent study which meticulously studies impact of this crisis on Global Mycoplasma Testing Kits & Reagents market and suggests possible measures to. Page 2 of 4 TB13100 Description The SouthernBiotech Mycoplasma Detection Kit is designed to specifically detect potential Mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures. The kit incorporates polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the conserved 16S ribosomal RNA coding region within the Mycoplasma genome, thereby providing an extensive, highly sensitive, and efficient detection method Mycoplasma pneumonia is a common respiratory pathogen that produces diseases of varied severity ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infection to severe atypical pneumonia. Apart from respiratory tract infections, this organism is also responsible for producing a wide spectrum of non-pulmonary manifestations including neurological, hepatic, cardiac diseases, hemolytic anemia.